Methods 39, 175–191. Indeed, participants recalled more familiar (famous or personally known) people with the same first name as their own than did paired participants. It is also an extremely familiar stimulus to which humans are sensitive as early as 4–5 months of age (Mandel et al., 1995; Parise et al., 2010). In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the cognitive advantage for one’s own name may also underpin a self-reference bias in memory for people. Percept. J. Soc. The self-reference effect is the idea that “when we relate things we want to remember to ourselves, this can lead to stronger memories” (Rogers et al., 1977). The 38 participants (11 males and 27 females, ages 19-43 years) were students enrolled in an online research …  |  In the absence of previous research on the effect under study, the sample size necessary to evaluate a medium size effect of 0.5 with a power of 0.8 at an alpha level of 0.05 for a two-tailed matched pairs comparison was 34 (G∗Power 3.1; Faul et al., 2007). NIH Experiments 2 (n = 60) and 3 (n = 52) involved case-control designs with closely matched groups of autistic and neurotypical adults and children/adolescents, respectively. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Studies of young adults demonstrate that relating information to oneself is a successful encoding strategy. (2007) differentiated “narrative self-reference,” or a linking of self-awareness across time, ... To reduce the feature space for later classification and to capture the effect of self-referential processing, we restricted our analysis to the θ- and α-frequency bands of the EEG signal. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Psychology, Speech and Language Therapy, and Education of the University of Liège. 2018 Feb;11(2):331-341. doi: 10.1002/aur.1891. Participants were tested individually and instructed to recall, by writing down on a blank sheet of paper, as many people they knew whose first name was X (or Y) as possible. The sample included 29 French-speaking Belgians, 3 French and 2 perfect bilingual Luxembourgers. Received: 24 August 2016; Accepted: 24 October 2016;Published: 09 November 2016. The self-reference effect has been demonstrated in a variety of other stimuli since Rogers et al. Self-memory bias in explicit and incidental encoding of trait adjectives. A spontaneous self-reference effect in memory: why some birthdays are harder to remember than others. Psychol. We examined whether participants were particularly good at retrieving people with the same first name as their own. Autism. The self-reference effect, or the tendency for people to remember better information when it has been encoded in reference to the self (Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker, 1977), has received great attention in psychology over the past thirty years. Psychol. Eur. Amount of cognitive resource influenced how much older adults benefit from self-referencing, and older adults appeared to extend the strategy less flexibly than young adults. 10.1017/S0033291700028099 In this experiment, participants within a pair knew each other but they were not close. One’s own name is a powerful cue for attention: it is more easily perceived as a target and it causes more interference as a distractor (for reviews, see Breska et al., 2011; Humphreys and Sui, 2016). Experiment 2 was designed to evaluate whether or not the self-reference effect on memory for people still occurred when paired participants were close to each other. Self-Reference Effect (SRE). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The possibility could not totally be excluded that some participants occasionally cheated by inventing people to enhance their “performance.” To avoid this possible bias, the preceding analysis was rerun on those persons whose existence could be verified, (i.e., the experimenter knew the cited persons or found them on the Internet via Google or on the University Intranet). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 2018 Apr;22(3):259-270. doi: 10.1177/1362361316680178. Gras-Vincendon A, Bursztejn C, Danion JM. Conscious. This bias has been found to occur even when the task required participants simply to report whether a word appeared above or below their own name (or a celebrity’s name). 2008 Dec;34(6):550-6. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2007.10.010. Autism Res. Psychol. Impact Factor 2.067 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Malaysia. Copyright © 2016 Brédart. Biol. However, the impact of self-reference on metamemory is not well understood. Neurosci. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2008.02.004, van den Bos, M., Cunningham, S. J., Conway, M. A., and Turk, D. J. These 34 participants were aged between 19 and 54 (M = 28.4; SD = 8.1), and their average educational level measured by the number of years of study completed to achieve their highest qualification was 16.4 (SD = 3.2). For example, imagine that two colleagues David and Simon are paired and they perform a verbal fluency task requiring to recall familiar (famous or personally known) people. The mean absolute age difference between pair members was 2.9 (SD = 3.6). For instance, people show a preference for the letters occurring in their own names (this preference is known as the Name-Letter Effect; for a review see Hoorens, 2014). 25, 228–262. (1977). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000883. The Self-reference Effect says people are more likely to remember, learn, and be persuaded by relevant information. In the first experiment, paired participants knew each other but were not close. Start studying PSY 148 Lecture #13 - The Self-Reference Effect and Memory. Psychol. (2012) task, as in the present study, the self-reference effect may simply result from an attentional advantage at encoding that helped to form associations between one’s own name and co-occurring stimuli [geometrical shapes in the Sui et al. The self-reference in retrieval of dates. Using a similar model as Craik and Lockhart, Rogers’s design revolved around subjects reading a question, being presented with a word and then being asked a question with a “yes” or “no” response. Attribution of mental states to animated shapes in normal and abnormal development. The aim here was to investigate the self-reference ownership paradigm on 3-year-old children’s retention of novel words. 63, 1065–1071. One’s own face is hard to ignore. Q. J. Exp. The self-reference effect refers to people’s tendency to better remember information when that information has been linked to the self than when it has not been linked to the self. Self reference is an aspect of interpersonal communication in which people refer to themselves. Bull. The self-reference effect (SRE) index was calculated as follows: (self accuracy – semantic accuracy) * 100. In these respects, Bayesian analyses consistently suggested that the data supported the null hypothesis. 42, 770–779. @choicehacking. Such an incidental effect suggests that we tend to spontaneously form associations between self-related information, such as our own name, and co-occurring external stimuli (see also Sui et al., 2012, Experiment 3D). The self-reference effect describes the phenomenon that information pertaining to self is better remembered and recalled than any other processed data. Known as the self-reference effect, there is evidence for the effect in children as young as three. 40, 216–224. However, more systematic research is needed to evaluate whether self-related cues other than one’s own name (e.g., year of birth, brand of car) can elicit a self-reference effect on memory for people. Previous studies have repeatedly shown that episodic memory is better for self-related stimuli than for stimuli related to other people, for tasks involving an explicit evaluation of personality adjectives (e.g., “Does the adjective ‘generous’ describe you/the President?”; for a review, see Symons and Johnson, 1997) or for tasks requiring someone to encode objects in a context of self- vs. other-ownership (Cunningham et al., 2008; van den Bos et al., 2010; Turk et al., 2013). What’s really in a Name-Letter Effect? (2010). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5–17. Only the persons whose first name was phonologically identical to the target name (X or Y) were included, whatever the spelling (e.g., “Katherine,” “Kathryn,” or “Catherine” were all accepted). Sui, J., He, X., and Humphreys, G. W. (2012). Lombardo MV, Barnes JL, Wheelwright SJ, Baron-Cohen S. PLoS One. Previous research has reported a self-attention bias for self-related stimuli other than one’s own name, e.g., one’s own face (Brédart et al., 2006; Tacikowski and Nowicka, 2010), hometown, phone number or year of birth (Gray et al., 2004). Self-Reference Effect; Motivated Social Perception; Culture and Self; Back to top. Referencing a customer’s internal picture of themselves is even more powerful. USA.gov. Some people are told to decide whether each word describes them. doi: 10.1177/0956797610383436, Mandel, D. R., Jusczyk, P. W., and Pisoni, D. B. The present study tested the hypothesis that the self-reference effect would be equally as efficient in an online, independent setting. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, Mean self-reference effects (i.e., self-bias scores: self. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.132.4.512. I will never forget my birthdate because it is a very important date in my life. The function of the self-attention network. Sci. Psychologists are interested in the frequency of such references and in the type of self perception they reveal and the way in which such behavior affects the social perception of others. Psychol. Cogn. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1882, Bower, G. H., and Gilligan, S. G. (1979). This theory is presented in Cunningham, Turk, MacDonald, and Macrae’s “Yours or Mine? Mine to remember: the impact of ownership on recollective experience. This difference arose whether paired participants were mere colleagues (Experiment 1) or close persons such as romantic partners or best friends (Experiment 2). This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Res. However, it seems that one’s own name gains cognitive priority only when it is presented within the focus of attention or when the participant is set to process it (Gronau et al., 2003; Kawahara and Yamada, 2004; Breska et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2013, but see Alexopoulos et al., 2012). Experiment 2 showed that the effect of self-reference occurred even when pairs of participants were close to each other. The fact that certain names are more prevalent in certain generations and cultures might have been confounding factors. … All participants gave their written informed consent prior to participation. Participants were also instructed that there was no obligation to give an exemplar for each category and that giving several exemplars from the same category was allowed. PLoS ONE 5:e14208. Cogn. (2010). This analysis also indicated that participants reported more people sharing their own first name (M = 3.29; SD = 2.05) than did their paired participants (M = 2.15; SD = 1.35), paired t(33) = 4.52, p < 0.0001, (Mdiff Self vs. Other = 1.15 [0.63, 1.66]; Cohen’s d = 0.79 [0.29, 1.29]). G∗Power 3: a flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical studies. This effect explains why setting my ATM PIN as my birthdate has always stayed in my memory. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.03.009, Turk, D. J., Brady-van den Bos, M., Collard, P., Gillepsie-Smith, K., Conway, M. A., and Cunningham, S. J. Psychol. Soc. Participants within a pair knew each other, were same gender colleagues but were not close to each other (for example they shared no extra-professional activities).  |  See this image and copyright information in PMC. The participant’s own name and the paired participant’s name were excluded to calculate these numbers (if X’s name was John Smith and Y’s name was Peter Brown, both John Smith and Peter Brown were excluded in calculating the number of names recalled by X or by Y). Related Articles Expand or collapse the "related articles" section about. In research on the self-reference effect, people are presented with a list of adjectives (e.g., intelligent, shy) and are asked to judge each word given a particular instruction. Aside from everyday events, the self-reference effect is also present in various familiar stimuli, such as days of birth or letters of first and family names. doi: 10.3758/BF03193146, Gray, H. M., Ambady, N., Lowenthal, W. T., and Dedlin, P. (2004). Across four studies (total N = 658), this new online tool reliably replicated the traditional self-reference effect: in all studies self-referentially encoded words were recalled significantly more than semantically encoded words (d = 0.63). Psychol. Over the past 40 years, many studies have suggested that processing one’s own name is prioritized relative to other kinds of social information. Rogers and coworkers in 1977 as a means of improving memory by encoding. Perceptual effects of social salience: evidence of self-prioritization effects of perceptual matching. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Yours or mine? Bull. For example, Simon retrieved more people called Simon than David did, but David retrieved more people called David than Simon did. It is a stimulus that people usually like. The results of the present study indicate that we are particularly good at retrieving people named like us. 24, 737–743. Recently, Cunningham (2016) suggested that this attentional advantage supports the self-reference effect in memory. Ownership and memory. studies, successive recall of imagined event details was higher for those imagined as happening to the participants themselves, rather than as Mr. Cronkite. -. Soc. Autism. M, male; F, female; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination. Other studies reported that this effect was restricted to positive or negative words ... (same formula for the semantic condition). In the Sui et al. Mem. 2020 Nov;24(8):2153-2165. doi: 10.1177/1362361320936820. (2007). Over the past 40 years, many studies have suggested that processing one’s own name is prioritized relative to other kinds of social information. It is possible that self-reference is more efficient than reference to close others when tasks do not require an explicit personality evaluation through the activation of a rich elaborative memory representation. In the present study, it was evaluated whether one’s own name may produce a self-reference bias in memory for people. The self-reference effect has traditionally been thought to result from a high-level cognitive process that involves “deep” elaborative encoding of information (Craik & Tulving, 1975): By becoming objectively self-aware during the encoding phase on self-referential trials, one’s explicit, second-order self-representation (the “Me”) scaffolds encoding of the trait word and leads to better recall/recognition … 13, 420–432. The Self-Reference Effect in Memory: A Meta-Analysis Cynthia S. Symons Houghton College Blair T. Johnson Syracuse University In this review, the authors examine the basis for the mnemonic superiority that results from relating material to the self. It was predicted that, all other things being equal, a participant would retrieve in memory more familiar people with the same first name as their own than a yoked participant would do. Previous studies have demonstrated that self-related stimuli, including one’s own name, are particularly powerful cues to attention and produce self-reference effects on episodic memory. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00517.x, Parise, E., Friederici, A. D., and Striano, T. (2010). However, the role of retrieval processes in the occurrence of this effect should be tested. In this case, people make a decision about each word in relation to their knowledge of t… However, it seems that one’s own name gains cognitive priority only when it is presented within the focus of attention or when the participant is set to process it (Gronau et … Cognitive Development, 15, 1–16. Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence from a British twin study. One’s own name is a powerful cue for attention: it is more easily perceived as a target and it causes more interference as a distractor (for reviews, see Breska et al., 2011; Humphreys and Sui, 2016). Infants’ recognition of the sound pattern of their own names. The Self-Reference Effect on Perception: Undiminished in Adults with Autism and No Relation to Autism Traits. Self-processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the self-reference effect was more limited for older adults. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev. 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