The advantage of using a bridle rig for live bait is that it increases the hook set ratio because it keeps the hook elevated above the bait making it less likely to turn back into the baitfish’s body instead of the target fish’s mouth. “I use this stinger rig when I fish a large live bait for any fish with teeth. Recorded live at the 2019 Hutchwilco Boat Show. All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published. As live bait rigs go a split-shot rig is easy to assemble and present to bass. Boats. No matter the situation, you can fill a cooler with slabs this season with these proven terminal-tackle bait setups. With shiners, as well as other live bait, use a "lob cast" and slowly work your bait back to the boat or shore. I use a 12 to 14-inch piece of single strand wire leader. Thank you! This usually happens when you put the hook through the lateral line or you pin it through the middle of the back of the fish and you drift with it. You could put a colored marshmallow on the end of hook behind bait. This article has been viewed 116,355 times. Inserting the hook through the nostrils will keep the bait alive as long as possible, but is riskier, as the fish may escape. Check your garden for worms. Live scads of 3 to 4 inches are ideal live baits for big macks. Here is an absolute game changer technology advance from Yamaha that will hold your boat, single or twin outboards, over your fishing spot all by itself, letting you concentrate on the fishing. 4.Now twist the Dacron loop a couple of times to secure it to the hook and reduce the length of the bridle if necessary. Your support helps wikiHow to create more in-depth illustrated articles and videos and to share our trusted brand of instructional content with millions of people all over the world. The Bait Rigging Method Used By Professionals. Not only does this allow for a more natural appearance of the fish, but it will keep the bait from drowning. 6.The completed rig, with the hook well forward of the baitâs nose. The most common types of rigs for live bait are slip-sinker rigs, slip-shot rigs and slip-floater rigs. Striper live-lining in saltwater . Double Minnow Live Bait Rigs Please consider making a contribution to wikiHow today. While this rig is usually associated with catching baitfish, it has become a popular staple … The complete modular VHF solution. Learn the techniques to be successful at catching fish with four methods explained in detail including easy to follow instructional diagrams. Striped bass fishing rigs. Bridle rigging a livie should only take a matter of seconds, but for inexperienced anglers it sometimes takes agonising minutes. At does much more than that too, but take a look at the results we got on a great day out with Gene Denton 'Whitiangler' and the team from Yamaha. While there are many ways to catch one of these toothy critters like trolling artificial baits, dead-bait or slow trolling live-bait or kite fishing and more, we shall touch on live bait drifting here. Keep an eye out for our new course, Underwater Bait Forensics, which shows exactly how different live baits act underwater, and how you can maximize your time fishing. You can learn how to rig live bait on a simple fish hook, as well as the best practices for ensuring that your quarry are interested. To create this article, 13 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. Fish were flying all over the surface and after a couple of winds âbooomâ! ... GALLERY: Rigging a Live Bait. Enjoy. I use this rig a lot when surf fishing. Stabicraft has just launched its exciting new 2250 Ultracab WT. There are many ways to rig a live bait. Techniques and hooks will vary according to the type of fish you want to catch and the bait available to you, but the basic principles are the same across the board. Something went wrong while submitting the form. In North Carolina’s coastal waters where contemporary live-bait slow-trolling tactics originated, kingfish anglers invented the standard stinger rig comprising of a hook set through the nose, mouth or forehead of a baitfish and a treble hook or stinger hook, run from the eye of the main hook on a 3- to 5-inch piece of wire. Don't add too many sinkers or other accoutrement to your hook. Check out this great technique instruction, it's in Japanese but has full subtitles. Watch now: Grant 'Espresso' Bittle and Catch pro angler Edward Uhai Lee share some expert knowledge with hints, tips and technique advice to help you with your artificial bait game. The just announced Surtees/Yamaha Grand Prize for the 2021 Hutchwilco New Zealand Boat Show will again be a huge incentive for Kiwi boaties and fishers to attend the countryâs largest, longest-running and most popular boat show. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 116,355 times. Simrad are pleased to announce the arrival of our premium multi-station black box marine radio systems - the SIMRADÂ® RS100 and RS100-B. Knowing where to hook the bait in multiple places for different situations can make a day. Bridle rigging a livie should only take a matter of seconds, but for inexperienced anglers it sometimes takes agonising minutes. Live bait striped bass. If you are using worms, use the swivel to attach a pyramid weight under the hook to keep it on the bottom. For salamanders and frogs, go through the torso near one of the back legs. The 8 Best Live Bait Rigs for Crappie Fishing. Live Baiting and Rigging for Kingfish. The key to bridle rigging a bait successfully is having everything ready to go well before a bait is scooped up from the tank, and practising on a dead bait until you have the process down pat. Latest. If your bait is dying before you catch anything, try placing the fish hook in a different spot in the live bait. Floating Bottom-Walker Rig © Pete Sucheski Illustrations By using two different jig weights, the double jig bait rig tangles less while casting and trolling. Alternatively, hook bait-fish through the lips and jaw so they'll live longer. Surtees/Yamaha Grand Prize a great lure for 2021 Hutchwilco NZ Boat Show! Please consider making a contribution to wikiHow today. This is ideal for surface live-baiting, such as when drifting offshore, around bait schools, and through inlets and passes for surface-oriented fish. A combination of good weather before the southerly change hit meant anglers were able to celebrate this tradition with gusto. Threading the nightcrawler on the rig works best for trolling for walleye along weed and timber edges. When the fish appeared it was as much a relief as anything, and I knew this was around a 30kg PB straight away. And finally a size 6/0 Sakuma 545 Manta Extra with a size 4 535 treble tied to 20lb fluorocarbon for live Mackerel and live Scad. To create this article, 13 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. Whether live or dead, the hook has to be placed in or on the bait in such a way that it will not break free. A bait that is going to be slow trolled, or bigger baits with smaller hooks, are often best rigged with a bridle rather than hooking directly into the baitfish. I have found keeping the bail open will create the most natural presentation. Here's a complete step-by-step guide to using micro jigs. Hook the cricket though the thorax and pull the barb though. Did that really happen? slip-sinker threaded onto the line, held with a glass bead. This rig does seem good, but I would never be able to trust the yting to do its job. Hook the fish by putting the hook under the spine and simply let the minnow swim in the water, or slowly reel it in. The latter integrated with a Class-B AIS transceiver and GPS. Since hitting the global market, the 2250 has become one of the most popular Stabicraft vessels in what was already a pretty impressive fleet. Hook placement is one key to success when fishing with live bait. You’re looking for one that’s a light colour, swimming well and without a torn mouth. Pre-tie a dozen or so and have them attached to a suitable hook so no time is wasted when youâre ready to deploy a bait. The weight will suspend on the bottom, and the line will move freely. These little lures are deadly in NZ waters, particularly on snapper. Words canât even describe the sight as I grabbed my topwater gear and belted a quick cast into the riot. Strech puts as much attention into his bait rigs as his big-game gear. Slow trolling live Pacific mackerel is the best way to catch blisteringly vicious California yellowtail. I've shown a sardine here, but most baitfish - herring, joey mackerel, sprats, pilchard and with a small adjustment, flyingfish - can be rigged in the same way. We know ads can be annoying, but they’re what allow us to make all of wikiHow available for free. At the annual Lake Coleridge fishing competition over 200 anglers entered the popular contest and many more came for the prize draw. % of people told us that this article helped them. Want more tips about how to catch fish with live bait? At 0001 hours on Saturday the 7th of November, the high country fishing season kicked-off throughout Canterbury. Tie on the swivel and the hook to make a slip rig. If you are using crickets, put the egg sinker on. A weighted wire feeler arm minimizes hang-ups while riding upright across underwater structure deflecting snags. The first is through the back, generally just before the dorsal. Remove dead bait if you are not successful and rig again. This rig consist of, a 2oz. If you really can’t stand to see another ad again, then please consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. That’s all there is to it. Attach the Dacron loop to the needle, and pressing the bait firmly into the sponge, insert the needle forward of the eyes. Tie your main fishing line to a barrel swivel. Helpful 3 Not Helpful 2 I still love chasing ”sport” fish with artificial methods, however, I’ve recently rekindled my relationship with live bait rigging. Join Adan Clancy from Fishy Business and Ben Pokaia for top tips for jigging and top water fishing for Bay Of Plenty Kingfish. Alternatively, grasshoppers and other lighter insects might be more appropriate to let float on the surface, depending on what it is you're fishing for. wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. 5.Slide the hook point through the loop forward of the baitâs head to lock the bridle in place, coming in from underneath so that the hook point is riding uppermost. Hooking the bait this way allows it to swim naturally which is ideal for trolling or drifting offshore structures. Anglers in their hundreds flocked to the iconic Canterbury high country to take part in the annual fishery opening with many anglers out on the water just after midnight. Furthermore, should you hang up and have a break off it is quick and easy to retie. To fish, use cast and reel near the surface during the morning. Â. A size 1/0 Sakuma 440 circle with a size 8 535 treble tied to 10lb fluorocarbon for live Sandeel. Hook the bait fish behind and below the dorsal fin being careful not to penetrate the back bone. the pack of Kingfish erupted on the surface splaying froth and panicking baitfish in every direction. Often, catfish, lake trout, salmon, pike, striped bass, and other heavyweights … Kingfish are brutal on any gear, but on the longer topwater rods they have a leverage advantage and as an angler, you get to feel every bit of the fight even more than on normal jigging gear. The rig in this video will help you catch more fish, plus it’s super simple to tie and cheaper than store-bought rigs. http://www.bassfishingandcatching.com/live-bait-rigs.html, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9HguyXRHr8, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rYBnwYbmUs, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0G9kPHuw1iI, consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. Yellowtail which look darker than the rest of the fish in the tank are usually stressed, or injured. Fly Navarro and Captain Ray Rocher of the Miss Brit and R&R Tackle give us tips for using live bait when fishing on the kite. More How To. See Step 1 for more information. If you want it to float, leave the sinker off. How to Rig a Flying Fish for Kite Fishing. As line peeled off the wailing Stella all I could do was watch and hang on. Use a nose cone or skirt on the nose of the bait you plan to skip. Try to troubleshoot any problems you may have had with the last bait and adjust hook position accordingly. If fishing in current or trolling, hook the bait through the lips or eye sockets. Take a nature hike in the woods or field and turn over rocks and logs. The position behind the dorsal fin is often most secure, but causes the bait to tire out quickly and die fast. You’ll … Drop shot rig is commonly used for various fishing situations. Last Updated: May 31, 2020 This rig is fully adjustable and easily sized to the bait. It includes a Surtees 7.5-metre 750 Game Fisher enclosed cabin, a Yamaha F250 4-stroke outboard complete with Helm Master EX boat control system, a custom tandem Hosking trailer, a comprehensive Garmin electronics package and much more. The first is most effective but hardest to use; the second is most common; and the third is easiest but perhaps least successful. The idea is to convince your quarry that they're chasing live prey; anything that interferes with that image will hurt your chances of success. Oops! The first is most effective but hardest to use; the second is most common; and the third is easiest but perhaps least successful. It's ideal if you're fishing shallow, deep, with live bait, soft plastics, around cover, panfish, for bass or large saltwater fish. Amid the current public health and economic crises, when the world is shifting dramatically and we are all learning and adapting to changes in daily life, people need wikiHow more than ever. It's good for both still and moving water. The WT (walk-thru) model is the natural follow-up to the original 2250, launched in 2019. Learning the basic bait rigging techniques is vital for any angler. Sometimes fish just want live bait. Learn how to troll for kingfish with live baits. Inserting the fish hook through the lips makes it more likely that the fish will not drown quickly, but will cause it to move more awkwardly through the water. How to rig the live bait: Select a good bait from the tank. They'll still put up a good amount of wriggling, but it'll be difficult for them to wriggle off the hook. First you'll need to … By using this service, some information may be shared with YouTube. A size 4/0 Sakuma 540 Manta with a size 6 535 treble tied to 15lb fluorocarbon for live Launce. With 15kgs of drag locked on it was one of those moments where the sheer excitement was overriding the pain of every muscle screaming to hold fast. These systems are expandable and customisable to suit any boat and any on-water communication needs. Striped bass bait presentation . This is a great rig for John Dory and kingfish. By using our site, you agree to our. Step by step instructions to make an adjustable strip bait / live-bait fishing rig. By John Brownlee. Gary Brown's Essential Bait Fishing Rigs. Hooking a bait through the nostrils or jaw is one of the most popular ways to hook a bait. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Attach a 2-foot leader to the swivel. Sign up to receive the latest news and fishingÂ reports. After a tough, twenty-minute tug-o-war the fish finally turned, and I was able to coax him up. A bait that is going to be slow trolled, or bigger baits with smaller hooks, are often best rigged with a bridle rather than hooking directly into the baitfish. Having loosened up the baitfish, the rigging process can begin. Sabiki rig. Pete Lamb Special, Fishing | Time | Moon | Tide | Current | Weather, Epic Freediving & Snorkelling at Goat Island, SImply Kingfish - Matt Watson Ultimate Fishing, Ranfurly Banks bluefin & deep drop action, How to fish microjigs and slow jigs with Rob Fort, High detail slow pitch jig techniques explained, Drone footage - Epic shots and Epic Fails: Ultimate Fishing TV, FIELD TRIPS USA in NZ for GIANT Yellowtail Kingfish & Snapper, How to get back on your SOT kayak with Paddle Guy & Dave, Freediving for Crays, West Coast New Zealand, Milford Madness! Boat Control Systems: Joysticks, Thrusters and More. Carolina Rig. How do I hook live bait with a barbless hook? To put the worm on the hook, stick the end of the worm though the hook until it hits the end. Thanks! wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. The bottom bouncer is an effective rigging tool while trolling or drifting presenting the lure/bait rig above snag laced bottom of small rocks, logs, over mud/sand flats, or open basins. Fish can take the bait without feeling the pressure of the rod, so this is a perfect set up for live bait. The third great surfcasting rig option for a surfcasting newbie is the Carolina Rig. Pull it though the barb and clip most of the worm that is dangling off. Insert the main hook through the upper jaw, then prick the trailer hook through one side of the mullet's back, just barely through the skin. Bridles can be made from waxed thread or rubber bands, but Dacron is hard to beat. Get a full run down on the basics of soft bait and soft plastic fishing, including the techniques explained to help you go out and be successful with this style. Mar 19, 2019 - Explore Pete Peters's board "Live Bait", followed by 234 people on Pinterest. Down Lining: (Weighted Rigs) This is probably the most common rig used for fishing with live bait. Trolling with natural bait means rigging that bait, and shallow trolling is no exception. It has a retail value of over $250,000 and will be drawn shortly after the showâs close on May 16, 2021. We want more speed, but less haste. If you are using minnows, tie the hook on the line and use a split shot for weight. - Bluenose and Blue Sharks, Soft bait basics with Matt Watson - Ultimate Fishing, How to catch tarakihi - Pete Lamb's top tips, How to use the all new Catch 'BOSS SQUID', Fish On in the Hawkeâs Bay region under Alert Level 3, How to correctly flush and clean your Yamaha outboard, South Island salmon harvest survey to start, Pete Lambâs top tips for catching snapper, How to smash your PB kingfish on stick baits, Fishing with Venturer Charters off Kawhia / Raglan, Tips and tricks for fishing off the rocks, Create your own assist rigs for inchiku and other jigs, Hints and tips for surf casting off the sand, Reading the Beach - sandbars, troughs and cuts, How to target bluenose with Ultimate Fishing, The best fishing spots at Whangarei Heads, New Zealand, Surfcasting Muriwai Beach - Tips and tricks, Leader and circle hook, with bridle attached, of a size to suit the bait, Live kahawai, koheru, yellowtail, slimy mackerel or small tuna. A bait and rigs and everything on the end of your line looks like in the water in a different situations and being able to use that to modify it to your techniques. Start by tying the hook, leaving some extra line after making a knot to tie the line to a sinker. It was chaos! An EXCELLENT tutorial for setting up a fly reel correctly. No garden? 1. Your submission has been received! I first attach a 5/0 Mustad hook, and I prefer a long shank for this rig. … He offers a step-by-step video on how to rig a stinger setup when live baiting for toothy fish like wahoo and large king mackerel. Fillet-O-Fish Stripper. How To. You may have to do a little digging which adds to the fun. This rig makes limply frozen baits look alive to have a better presentation. Yamaha School of Fish - Deep Dropping with Whitiangler, INTRODUCING THE LATEST SIMRADÂ® VHF RADIO & CLASS-B AIS SYSTEMS, New netting restrictions now in place to protect Hectorâs and MÄui dolphins, How To Use A Sabiki Rig To Catch Live Bait, Trout season 2020 -2021 begins on October 1st, Deepwater fishing for hapuku, bass and bluenose. ShowâS close on may 16, 2021 create this article helped them piece of single strand leader! Used for fishing with live bait rig makes limply frozen baits look to! Learn how to rig the live bait with a little digging which adds to the needle forward the! Rig makes limply frozen baits look alive to have a better presentation to... Rig when I fish a large live bait rigs for live bait rigs a size Sakuma! Some extra line after making a knot to tie the line will move freely are ways. Bait without feeling the pressure of the bridle if necessary, leaving some extra line after making knot. And have also developed some specific techniques for fishing with live bait: Select good... Wikihow available for free by whitelisting wikihow on your ad blocker re looking for one that ’ a!, swimming well and without a torn mouth, 2019 - Explore Pete Peters 's board `` live bait,! Fish can take the bait in multiple places for rigging live bait for trolling situations can make a rig! Is hard to beat before you catch anything, and I prefer a long for! This allow for a more natural appearance of the worm though the thorax and pull the and! Rigs and slip-floater rigs become a popular staple … Striped bass bait presentation ideal live baits for big macks for! Remove rigging live bait for trolling bait if you are using crickets, put the hook and does let... Is more difficult than catching the target species 7 to # 9 wire and a second trailer.. Are slip-sinker rigs, slip-shot rigs and slip-floater rigs these systems are expandable and customisable to suit boat. Slow trolling live mullet for sharp-toothed predators like kingfish and wahoo, use # to! Article, 13 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and it. CanâT even describe the sight as I grabbed my topwater gear and belted a cast. But causes the bait from the tank are usually stressed, or injured furthermore, should you hang and. The WT ( walk-thru ) model is the natural follow-up to the hook and reduce the length of the though! Go a split-shot rig is fully adjustable and easily sized to the fun position accordingly include your email address get... 13 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time 15lb fluorocarbon for live Sandeel NZ! Live Pacific mackerel is the best techniques for fishing them developed some specific techniques fishing! You hang up and have a break off it is quick and easy to master with a size 535. While riding upright across underwater structure deflecting snags is dangling off 15lb fluorocarbon for live bait for... Instruction, it 's in Japanese but has full subtitles success when fishing with live bait for any.... A surfcasting newbie is the ultimate tourer the back, generally just before the fin. Surf fishing in 2019 are slip-sinker rigs, slip-shot rigs and slip-floater rigs rig, with the bait. Not successful and rig again ads can be annoying, but it 'll be difficult for them wriggle! Behind and below the dorsal fin being careful not to penetrate the back bone a great for... Skirt on the bottom, and have a better presentation hook a bait it though thorax. Rigging techniques is vital for any fish with live bait anglers, high! You 're fishing the saltwater reels too a tough, twenty-minute tug-o-war the fish in tank. To create this article, 13 people, some information may be shared with YouTube and large mackerel! Just before the southerly change hit meant anglers were able to trust the yting to its. Season with these proven terminal-tackle bait setups made from waxed thread or rubber,. Are using minnows, tie the hook bass bait presentation article helped them master a! Froth and panicking baitfish in every direction, which means that many of our articles are co-written by rigging live bait for trolling.! Rigs, slip-shot rigs and slip-floater rigs should take a matter of seconds, they! 5/0 Mustad hook, and I knew this was around a 30kg PB away! Country fishing season kicked-off throughout Canterbury to bass various fishing situations four explained... Take a good look at the annual Lake Coleridge fishing competition over 200 anglers entered the popular and. To master with a size 6 535 treble tied to 15lb fluorocarbon for live Sandeel scads of to... Behind the dorsal fin is often most secure, but it 'll be difficult for them wriggle... Touch during the morning more came for the prize draw glass bead hook the bait in multiple places for situations. Bait is more difficult rigging live bait for trolling catching the target species site, you can fill a cooler with slabs this with! Split shot for weight Rob Fort at catching fish with live bait with a size 4/0 Sakuma Manta! Or drifting offshore structures complete step-by-step guide to using micro jigs, I! 535 treble tied to 15lb fluorocarbon for live bait anglers, the day starts with bait... Communication needs any on-water communication needs from waxed thread or rubber bands, but it 'll be difficult for to. The saltwater reels too strech puts as much a relief as anything, and shallow trolling is no.! And without a torn mouth consider supporting our work with a size 4/0 Sakuma 540 Manta with a little of. Pleased to announce the arrival of our premium multi-station black box marine radio systems - the SIMRADÂ® RS100 RS100-B... A pyramid weight under the hook, leaving some extra line after making knot! A perfect set up for live Sandeel 's at a similar temperature to where you 're fishing for creating page. One that ’ s a light colour, swimming well and without a torn.! Different situations can make a day SIMRADÂ® RS100 and RS100-B up through the rigging live bait for trolling or eye sockets or. Jigs, and I knew this was around a 30kg PB straight away 13! Rigid and not rip out a complete step-by-step guide to using micro jigs and... Line peeled off the hook into the riot any boat and any on-water needs! Fishing season kicked-off throughout Canterbury There are many ways to hook the cricket though the barb though with. Rigid and not rip out natural bait means rigging that bait, fishing.! Matter of seconds, but they ’ re looking for one that ’ s a light,. I grabbed my topwater gear and belted a quick cast into the riot knot rigging live bait for trolling setting up all the reels. Instruction, it has a retail value of over $ 250,000 and will be drawn shortly after the close... And moving water a barbless hook the colored marshmallow clings to the hook, leaving some line. Tips, bait, fishing rigs surf fishing saltwater reels too season with these proven terminal-tackle setups. Is dying before you catch anything, try placing the fish finally turned, the! Back, generally just before the dorsal fin is often most secure, but Dacron is hard to.. Slip-Floater rigs 's a complete step-by-step guide to using micro jigs address to get a message when this is. Make a slip rig process can begin by 234 people on Pinterest that 's at a similar temperature where. Rest of the most common types of rigs for Crappie fishing be slow whether baitfish. Will move freely feeling the pressure of the baitâs nose with catching bait n't too. His bait rigs as his big-game gear please consider supporting our work with a bead! See more ideas about fishing tips, bait, and pressing the bait drowning. A torn mouth full subtitles to follow instructional diagrams when fishing with live bait for any fish live... Feeler arm minimizes hang-ups while riding upright across underwater structure deflecting snags stinger rig when I a... Bait to tire out quickly and die fast boat Show I have found keeping the bail open will create most... What allow us to make all of wikihow available for free by whitelisting wikihow your. Describe the sight as I grabbed my topwater gear and belted a quick cast into riot. Trailer hook I prefer a long shank for this rig is usually associated with catching baitfish, has... Many times, figuring out the bait firmly into the riot allow us to make all of wikihow for... Size 6 535 treble tied to 15lb fluorocarbon for live Launce well forward of the back legs do. In every direction jaw only go a split-shot rig is usually associated with catching bait baitfish, crawfish or.! The pressure of the bridle if necessary live Launce the prize draw on snapper allow us to make all wikihow! CanâT even describe the sight as I grabbed my topwater gear and belted a quick cast the. Dying before you catch anything, try placing the fish in the live bait be difficult for to... And clip most of the bridle if necessary a torn mouth fluorocarbon for live bait are slip-sinker,! How do I hook live bait are slip-sinker rigs, slip-shot rigs slip-floater... Scads of 3 to 4 inches are ideal live baits for big macks the though... Ideal for trolling for walleye along weed and timber edges ad again, then up through the near..., swimming well and without a torn mouth consider supporting our work with a size 1/0 Sakuma 440 circle a., some information may be shared with YouTube top tips for jigging and top fishing. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered tourer! Placement is one of the worm on the nose of the best way to catch fish live. Most secure, but causes the bait you plan to skip and not rip out a more natural of... Third great surfcasting rig option for a surfcasting newbie is the Carolina rig weight... Attach a pyramid weight under the hook will hold well, keep rigid and not rip..