Sourced from Reddit, Twitter, and beyond!  Unlike other cetaceans, the belugas seasonally shed their skin. The layers can be readily identified as one layer consists of opaque dense material and the other is transparent and less dense. The 12-year-old belugas, caught in Russia and raised in captivity, do not know how to live in the wild. A study conducted in 2015 determined that European beluga signals share physical features comparable to “vowels.” These sounds were found to be stable throughout time, but varied among different geographical locations. , Individuals of both sexes reach their maximum size by the time they are 10 years old. Attacks on belugas by killer whales have been reported in the waters of Greenland, Russia, Canada and Alaska.  Unlike most cetaceans, they are capable of swimming backwards.  Often individuals will surface and dive together in a synchronized manner, in a behavior known as milling. Beluga Whale Conservation Length: 0:59 min. Blue Whales are the largest known animal in the world; growing up to 98 feet (30 meters) and weighing up to 173 tons (157,000 kgs). A yellowish tinge can sometimes be seen on adult belugas, caused by a layer of algae growing on their skin.  After this, they start to supplement their diets with shrimp and small fish. , Between 1960 and 1992, the United States Navy carried out a program that included the study of marine mammals' abilities with echolocation, with the objective of improving the detection of underwater objects. It was originally called the Super Transporter, but the nickname Beluga became more popular and was then officially adopted. In addition, the noise produced by the motors has an adverse effect on their auditory function and reduces their ability to detect their prey, communicate and navigate. , The total amount of landed (defined as belugas successfully hunted and retrieved) belugas averages 275 in regard to the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort stocks from 1987-2006.  Many hundreds and even thousands of individuals can be present when the pods join together in river estuaries during the summer. , The beluga inhabits a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in Arctic and sub-Arctic waters. , Belugas released from captivity have difficulties adapting to life in the wild, but if not fed by humans they may have a chance to join a group of wild belugas and learn to feed themselves, according to Audun Rikardsen of the University of Tromsø.. Males weight from 1,100 to 1,600 kg or 2,400 to 3,500 lb. They are opportunistic feeders and their diets vary according to their locations and the season. Alloparenting (care by females different from the mother) has been observed in captive belugas, including spontaneous and long-term milk production.  Generally, the use of different habitats in summer reflects differences in feeding habits, risk from predators and reproductive factors for each of the subpopulations. Chemical substances such as DDT and heavy metals such as lead, mercury and cadmium have been found in individuals of the Saint Lawrence River population. 12. ", https://www.novayagazeta.ru/articles/2018/09/14/77814-orfey-2005-g-r-1-sht-gratsiya-2009-g-r-1-sht, "Ceta Base – Captive Cetacean Database – Cetacean Inventory • U.S. & Canada", "Arrests made in Russia following illegal whale trafficking scandal", "Beluga Whale Calf Born at Shedd Aquarium", "Male Beluga Whale Arrives at Mystic Aquarium", "Nace la primera cría de ballena beluga en cautividad en Europa", "Muere la ballena beluga que nació hace 25 días en el Oceanográfico de Valencia", "Kylu, la beluga que nació en el Oceanogràfic de Valencia un día de superluna", "Sonic Sea – Wild & Scenic Film Festival", "Vancouver Aquarium sues filmmaker over critical documentary", https://frontiersnorth.com/blog/2015/01/5-things-you-didn’t-know-about-churchill, "The impact of ecotourism boats on the St. Lawrence beluga whales", "Japan Sea. The sanctuary was completed in early 2019. Also known as the “ sea canaries ”, Beluga Whales are born grey and don’t get their whole color until 7-8 … ", View our inclusive approach to conservation, An aquatic symphony of beluga whales inspires adventurers. For example, a correlation appears to exist between the passage of belugas across the mouth of the Saguenay River, which has decreased by 60%, and the increase in the use of recreational motorboats in the area. As a result of climate, beluga whales vary in size between different populations, with 50% of their weight being fat, more than other whales, whose body is only 20% fat. , Some populations are not migratory and certain resident groups will stay in well-defined areas, such as in Cook Inlet, the estuary of the Saint Lawrence River and Cumberland Sound. Eastern Bering Sea- 7,000-9,200 individuals  Pods tend to be unstable, meaning individuals tend to move from pod to pod. Preliminary investigations suggested a beluga's life expectancy was rarely more than 30 years. , Hybrids have been documented between the beluga and the narwhal (specifically offspring conceived by a beluga father and a narwhal mother), as one, perhaps even as many as three, such hybrids were killed and harvested during a sustenance hunt. Chukchi sea belugas also appear to be spending more time in deeper water presently, as opposed to the 1990s. The first beluga was shown at Barnum's Museum in New York City in 1861. The same individual produced sounds with a maximum frequency of 100 to 120 kHz when transferred to Kaneohe Bay in Hawaii. The beluga is not related to the sturgeon of the same name, which has been heavily fished for its famous caviar. The primary invertebrate consumed is shrimp.The primary prey item in regard to fish species for belugas in Bristol Bay appears to be the five species of salmon, with sockeye being the most prevalent.  They are opportunistic feeders; their feeding habits depend on their locations and the season. 5.  To protect these marine animals during whale-watching activities, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has published a "Guide for observing marine life". Check out these other unusual beluga whale facts.  The method used to calculate the age of a beluga is based on counting the layers of dentin and dental cement in a specimen's teeth, which were originally thought to be deposited once or twice a year. The bulk of Eastern Chukchi Sea belugas summer over Barrow canyon. These manufactured items ensured the hunting of belugas continued for the rest of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Beluga whales are also culturally important to indigenous communities in the Arctic. The word "beluga" is from the Russian "bielo" meaning "white".  They are able to capture large individuals in this way; in one documented incident, a bear weighing between 150 and 180 kg was able to capture an animal that weighed 935 kg.. , In coastal areas, they can be found in coves, fjords, canals, bays and shallow waters in the Arctic Ocean that are continuously lit by sunlight.  The rivers they most often travel up include: the Northern Dvina, the Mezen, the Pechora, the Ob and the Yenisei in Asia; the Yukon and the Kuskokwim in Alaska, and the Saint Lawrence in Canada. The Voice of the Beluga Whale Length: 0:25 min. They measure between 3.5 and 5.5 meters long, while a female reaches 3 to 4meters, at most.  Since Canada ceased to be the supplier of these animals, Russia has become the largest provider. Video of belugas blowing bubble rings and performing other tricks at a Japanese aquarium, International Union for Conservation of Nature, tame beluga whale wearing a Russian equipment harness, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, "Japanese whale whisperer teaches beluga to talk", "Cytochrome b nucleotide sequences and the identification of five primary lineages of extant cetaceans", "Charlotte, The Vermont Whale – An Electronic Museum", "Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga (, Aquatic Species at Risk – Beluga Whale (St. Lawrence Estuary population), "Beluga Whales – Physical Characteristics", "Environmental Adaptations of the Beluga Whale (. In the Canadian Arctic, calves are born between March and September, while in Hudson Bay, the peak calving period is in late June, and in Cumberland Sound, most calves are born from late July to early August.  The Irrawaddy dolphin was once placed in the same family, though recent genetic evidence suggests these dolphins belong to the family Delphinidae. From a human point of view, belugas are deemed the most likeable whales. Male calves are also frequently seen interacting with each other. Buried nearly 10 ft (3.0 m) below the surface in a thick blue clay, these bones were unlike those of any animal previously discovered in Vermont. The program started with dolphins, but a large number of belugas were also used from 1975 onwards. , Russia now harvests 5 to 30 belugas per year for meat and captures an additional 20 to 30 per year for live export to Chinese aquaria.  Gestation has been estimated to last 12.0 to 14.5 months, but information derived from captive females suggests a longer gestation period up to 475 days (15.8 months). A Japanese researcher says he taught a beluga to "talk" by using these sounds to identify three different objects, offering hope that humans may one day be able to communicate effectively with sea mammals. Also known as "sea canaries," belugas are one of the most the most vocal of all whales. That means that like humans, they have a lot of brain power … While some populations tolerate small boats, most actively try to avoid ships. 100 grams of Beluga Whale have 5.34 gr of total fat, the 8% of your total daily needs. Its sense of hearing is highly developed and its echolocation allows it to move about and find breathing holes under sheet ice.  In the eastern Beaufort Sea, female belugas with their young and immature males prefer the open waters close to land, while the adult males live in waters covered by ice near the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Merlin bought the park in 2012, as part of an Australian chain, and it is one of their largest aquaria. Increased shipping means more noise that can mask communications for many Arctic marine species and it increases the potential for collisions with marine mammals, especially whales.  They make sounds by grinding their teeth or splashing, but they rarely use body language to make visual displays with their pectoral fins or tailfins, nor do they perform somersaults or jumps in the way other species do, such as dolphins. , The calves remain dependent on their mothers for nursing for the first year, when their teeth appear. , Female belugas typically give birth to one calf every three years. Population: 72,000 - 144,000 An estimated of two-thirds of the world's population of beluga whales are found in Canada Longevity: These whales live to be around 35-50 years. The presence of cone cells indicates they can see colours, although this suggestion has not been confirmed. Biology and Ecology", "Catch history and initial population of white whales (, "The Harvest of Beluga Whales in Canada's Western Arctic: Hunter-Based Monitoring of the Size and Composition of the Catch (has data through 1984)", "Beaufort Sea Beluga Management Plan, 4th amended printing", "Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports (SARs) by Region :: NOAA Fisheries", "Diet and feeding observations from an unusual beluga harvest in 2014 near Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada", "Land Claims and Resistance to the Management of Harvester Activities in Nunavut", "Co-Management of Beluga Whales in Nunavik (Arctic Quebec), Canada", "Nunatsiaq News 2016-08-22: NEWS: Nunavik's beluga season closes early", "The Subsistence Use of Beluga Whale in Cook Inlet by Alaska Natives, 1993", "Participation in subsistence fishing by residents-Beluga harvested by residents (downloadable data)", "Alaska Marine Mammal Stock Assessments, 2017 (draft)", "Draft Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports, NOAA Fisheries", "Un grupo de cazadores matará en Canadá a cerca de 80 belugas que han quedado atrapadas por el hielo", "Polar Bear Predation on Beluga in the Canadian Arctic", "Killer whale predation on belugas in Cook Inlet, Alaska: Implications for a depleted population", "Cancer in Wildlife, a Case Study: Beluga from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada", "The Effect of Vessel Noise on the Vocal Behavior of Belugas in the St. Lawrence River Estuary, Canada", "Beluga Whales – Longevity and Causes of Death", "The Whales, New York Tribune, August 9, 1861", "Canada Bans Keeping Whales And Dolphins In Captivity", "Reddet russisk "militærhval" på norgesbesøk", "As experts fear for its survival, Tufjord residents told not to feed beluga so that it can learn to forage", "Merlin Entertainments plc - 2018 Interim Results – Company Announcement - FT.com", "Beluga Whales Train for Sanctuary in Iceland", "World's First Open Water Sanctuary For Beluga Whales To Open Spring 2019 In Iceland", "Merlin Entertainment Seeks to Move Belugas to Sanctuary", "Les parcs à thème controversés SeaWorld arrivent bientôt en Asie", "Belugas "floated away" to China. The name of the genus, Delphinapterus, means "dolphin without fin" (from the Greek δελφίν (delphin), dolphin and απτερος (apteros), without fin) and the species name leucas means "white" (from the Greek λευκας (leukas), white).  The narwhal is the only other species within the Monodontidae besides the beluga. Animals in this location have also been recorded as suffering infections caused by herpesviruses and in certain cases to be suffering from encephalitis caused by the protozoan Sarcocystis. A fatty deposit inside this small cavity connects to the middle ear. Minimally Invasive Physiological Correlates of Intersexual Behavior in Belugas.  In one case, one whale blew bubbles, while the other one popped them. , Belugas are able to see within and outside of water, but their vision is relatively poor when compared to dolphins. To put that into perspective, that’s about the combined weight of 3 space shuttles! Whale, beluga, meat, raw (Alaska Native) Nutrition Facts & Calories For best results, be sure to enable the option to PRINT BACKGROUND IMAGES in the following browsers: - Firefox ( File > Page Setup > Format & Options ) - Internet Explorer 6/7 ( Tools > Internet Options > Advanced > Printing ) - In Internet Explorer 7 you will need to adjust the default "Shrink To Fit" setting. , Previous levels of commercial whaling have put the species in danger of extinction in areas such as Cook Inlet, Ungava Bay, the St. Lawrence River and western Greenland. Beluga whales normally weigh up between 3,000 or 3,300 pounds.  Today, the Charlotte whale is the official Vermont State Fossil (making Vermont the only state whose official fossil is that of a still extant animal)..  The act also states that all whales in US territorial waters are under the jurisdiction of the National Marine Fisheries Service, a division of NOAA.. The beluga whale is easily recognizable thanks to its stark white coloring and globular head. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown modern cetaceans last shared a common ancestor between 25 and 34 million years ago The superfamily Delphinoidea (which contains monodontids, dolphins and porpoises) split from other toothed whales, odontoceti, between 11 and 15 million years ago.  During the mating season, the testes mass of belugas will double in weight. A beluga’s entire life is connected to sea ice, both as a place to feed and a place to take refuge.  They produce a rapid sequence of clicks that pass through the melon, which acts as an acoustic lens to focus the sounds into a beam that is projected forward through the surrounding water. Whether or not these hybrids could breed remains unknown. The adults are white in color and molt seasonally. Climate is probably a factor in determining the body size of belugas in different populations. Adopt a Beluga Whale Make a symbolic beluga whale adoption to help save some of the world's most endangered animals from extinction and support WWF's conservation efforts. The beluga whale is a small whale known for its striking white skin.It is a member of a group of animals known as ‘toothed whales’.This group also contains the killer whale and all dolphins.The beluga whale’s closest living relative is the narwhal.. Beluga Whales are a species of whale known for their white color and vocal characteristics. Newborn calves are about 5 feet in length and 54 to 80 kg in weight. Aurek is the biggest beluga. Its body is round, particularly when well fed, and tapers less smoothly to the head than the tail. Smelt is also another common fish family eaten by belugas in this region. In 2008, the beluga was reclassified as "near threatened" by the IUCN due to uncertainty about threats to their numbers and the number of belugas over parts of its range (especially the Russian Arctic), and the expectation that if current conservation efforts cease, especially hunting management, the beluga population is likely to qualify for "threatened" status within five years.  They use their vocalisations for echolocation, during mating and for communication.  Calves often return to the same estuary as their mother in the summer, meeting her sometimes even after becoming fully mature. The study therefore estimated belugas can live for 70 or 80 years. Beluga whales are among the smallest species of whales. Individuals then take turns feeding on the fish. This will also give you a good idea of what a baby beluga whale looks like.. How much to beluga whales weight? When killer whales are present, large numbers of beluga whales congregate in the shallows for protection, which allows them to be hunted in droves.  Northern Canadian sites are the focus of discussions between local communities and the Canadian government, with the objective of permitting sustainable hunting that does not put the species at risk of extinction. For other uses, see, Conservation research in managed care facilities, Greenland source 1954–1999, Beaufort source 2000–2012. Belugas can alter the shape of their forehead, known as a "melon", by means of blowing air around their sinuses. Hunts receive subsidies, but they continue as a tradition, rather than for the money, and the economic analysis noted that whale watching may be an alternate revenue source. Belugas sometimes follow migrating fish, leading Alaska state biologist Tom Seaton to speculate it had followed migrating salmon up the river at some point in the previous autumn. Inuit observation has led scientists to believe that belugas do not hunt during migration, at least in Hudson Bay , The diet of Alaskan belugas is quite diverse and varies depending on season and migratory behavior. Naughty beluga whales play with a keeper by biting flippers off his feet as he tries to clean their water tank. 65 grams fat equals to the 30% of calories consumed by humans and represents the estimated daily needed for a 133-lb. The blue whale is the largest living animal on this planet and can grow to be over 90 ft. and weigh 150 tons or more. NAMMCO (2018) Report of the NAMMCO Global Review of Monodontids. Diet: Fish, also invertebrates. As of 2016, the estimated abundance of the endangered Cook Inlet population was 293 individuals. The unusual dentition seen in the single remaining skull indicates the hybrid hunted on the seabed, much as walruses do, indicating feeding habits different from those of either parent species. , Some evidence indicates that belugas are highly sensitive to noise produced by humans.  A similar observation has been made by Canadian researchers, where a beluga which died in 2007 "talked" when he was still a subadult. beluga whales can weigh up to 2-3 thousands poundsANSWER:The beluga weighs about 1 to 3 pounds.Some other facts:it can live up to 30 years.----I hope this … Madison , J. The presence of shipping produces avoidance behaviour, causing deeper dives for feeding, the break-up of groups, and asynchrony in dives. Adult males measure 5 meters (14-16 feet), with a maximum length of 5.3 meters (20 feet), and weigh about 3,300 pounds. , The species presents a moderate degree of sexual dimorphism, as the males are 25% longer than the females and are sturdier.  The populations living in the Ungava Bay and the eastern and western sides of Hudson Bay overwinter together beneath the sea ice in Hudson Strait. It is not known if these organs are functional or simply vestigial.  They also join together into coordinated groups of five or more to feed on shoals of fish by steering the fish into shallow water, where the belugas then attack them.  A dramatic decrease has also been recorded in the number of calls between animals (decreasing from 3.4 to 10.5 calls/min to 0 or <1) after exposure to the noise produced by ships, the effect being most persistent and pronounced with larger ships such as ferries than with smaller boats. The IUCN cited the stability of the largest sub-populations and improved census methods that indicate a larger population than previously estimated. The beluga is considered an excellent sentinel species (indicator of environment health and changes), because it is long-lived, at the top of the food web, bears large amounts of fat and blubber, relatively well-studied for a cetacean, and still somewhat common. The females are 9 to 13 feet long and weigh 1360 kg. , The fuselage design of the Airbus Beluga, one of the world's biggest cargo planes, is very similar to that of a beluga. With the extreme difficulty of studying beluga whales in the wild and the lack of ability to collect biological samples or perform examinations on individuals, managed care facilities play a critical role..  The average age at which females first give birth is 8.5 years and fertility begins to decrease when they are 25, eventually undergoing menopause, and ceasing reproductive potential with no births recorded for females older than 41. The average annual landed harvest of belugas in the Beaufort Sea consisted of 39 individuals while the Chukchi harvest averaged 62 individuals. Make a symbolic beluga whale adoption to help save some of the world's most endangered animals from extinction and support WWF's conservation efforts. Southwest Greenland- Extinct Scientific name: Delphinapterus leucas. Thousands of years of evolution have prepared Arctic species like the polar bear, walrus and beluga for life on and around the sea ice.  A number of incidents have been reported where groups or individuals have been found hundreds or even thousands of kilometres from the ocean. Her "not-so-little bundle of joy" weighed 174 pounds at birth, … Born in 2003, the 14-foot, 2,100-pound whale arrived at Shedd in September 2017. , Russia had large hunts, peaking in the 1930s at 4,000 per year and the 1960s at 7,000 per year, for a total of 86,000 from 1915 to 2014.  As of 2006, 58 belugas were held in captivity in Canada and the United States, and 42 deaths in US captivity had been reported up to that time. , These animals usually only dive to depths to 20 m (66 ft), although they are capable of diving to greater depths.  In 1988 Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans and Environment Canada, a governmental agency that supervises national parks, implemented the Saint Lawrence Action Plan with the aim of reducing industrial contamination by 90% by 1993; as of 1992, the emissions had been reduced by 59%. Pour la suite du monde, is a Canadian documentary film released in 1963 about traditional beluga hunting carried out by the inhabitants of L'Isle-aux-Coudres on the Saint Lawrence River. , Prior to 2008, the beluga was listed as "vulnerable" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), a higher level of concern. Beluga whales are known for their white color and range of vocal sounds, earning them the title of \"canary of the sea.\" They are very social animals, forming groups to hunt, migrate, and interact with each other.  Births usually take place in bays or estuaries where the water is warm with a temperature of 10 to 15 °C. Anadyr- 3,000 We are advocating for better oil spill prevention and response measures. The difference in frequencies is thought to be a response to the difference in environmental noise in the two areas. Their bulbous forehead, called a "melon”, is flexible and capable of changing shape.  However, the calf died 25 days later after suffering metabolic complications, infections and not being able to feed properly.  Another distinctive characteristic it possesses is the melon is malleable; its shape is changed during the emission of sounds. For example, residents in Kotzebue, have reported that killer whales have been sighted more frequently in Kotzebue Sound.  The program included training these mammals to carry equipment and material to divers working under water, the location of lost objects, surveillance of ships and submarines, and underwater monitoring using cameras held in their mouths. The flippers are broad and short—making them almost square-shaped.  The average number of dives per day varies between 31 and 51.  This was primarily due to unregulated overharvesting of beluga whales prior to 1998. , There are about 21 sub-populations of beluga whales and it is estimated that 200,000 individuals still exist, which are listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. , As with any animal population, a number of pathogens cause death and disease in belugas, including viruses, bacteria, protozoans and fungi, which mainly cause skin, intestinal and respiratory infections. The most common prey items for belugas in Cook Inlet appear to be salmon, cod and smelt. Meet the Beluga Whale Length: 0:35 min. The native populations of the Arctic in Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Russia hunt belugas, for both consumption and profit.  The fins are small in relation to the size of the body, rounded and oar-shaped and slightly curled at the tips. 흰고래 Delphinaterus leucas 영명 : Beluga, White whale 일명 : 시로이루카, "Aerial Surveys of Beluga Whales in Cook Inlet, Alaska, Between June 2001 and June 2002". It can hear sounds within the range of 1.2 to 120 kHz, with the greatest sensitivity between 10 and 75 kHz, where the average hearing range for humans is 0.02 to 20 kHz. Under normal conditions, the spiracle is closed and an animal must contract the muscular covering to open the spiracle. Weight: 700 - 1600 kg Length: 2.6 - 6.7 m They tend to reach their full size when they reach 10 years of age yet they are among the smallest types of whales. person to maintain her or his weight. Managed care facilities in North America have been able to work cooperatively to build upon the research of beluga whale reproduction and have made remarkable advances. "Seasonal Epidermal Molt in Beluga Whales, "Beluga Whales – Communication and Echolocation", https://books.google.com/books?id=XFgVnwEACAAJ&pg=PA895.  The population of the St. Lawrence belugas decreased from 10,000 in 1885 to around 1,000 in the 1980 and around 900 in 2012. Shrimp is the most prevalent invertebrate prey item.  The IUCN and NOAA Fisheries cite habitat degradation, oil and gas drilling, underwater noise, harvesting for consumption and climate change as threats to the prolonged survival of beluga whale sub-populations..  This is a higher percentage than that documented for other populations of this species and is much higher than for other cetaceans and for the majority of terrestrial mammals; in fact, the rate is only comparable to the levels found in humans and some domesticated animals. These social whales live in Artic and sub-Arctic oceans, and are adapted to life in frigid waters. Narwhal is a medium-sized whale species found exclusively in the Arctic waters. , The beluga has a very specialised sense of hearing and its auditory cortex is highly developed. Appearance: White, grey.  The Red List of Threatened Species gives both beluga and white whale as common names, though the former is now more popular.  The beluga is able to change the shape of its head by blowing air around its sinuses to focus the emitted sounds.  They are able to swim alongside their mothers immediately after birth. , Unlike many dolphins and whales, the seven vertebrae in the neck are not fused together, allowing the animal to turn its head laterally without needing to rotate its body. Belugas are extremely sociable mammals that live, hunt and migrate together in pods, ranging from a few individuals to hundreds of whales. In 1967, the Churchill River estuary became the main source from which belugas were captured. Beluga whales in James Bay: a separate entity from eastern Hudson Bay belugas? The Sea Life Trust Beluga Whale Sanctuary was created with support from Merlin Entertainments and Whale and Dolphin Conservation (WDC).  A few other individuals have been confirmed to return to the coasts of Hokkaido, and one particular individual became a resident in brackish waters of Lake Notoro since in 2014. Burst calls tend to indicate aggression. As more research is done, the management of beluga whales in managed care facilities can be greatly improved and may even help develop other cetacean breeding and contraceptive programs, such as that of the bottlenose dolphin. The beluga whale is listed on appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). Beluga whales have flexible necks, allowing them to move their heads.