[116], Nasser died unexpectedly in September 1970, with Gaddafi playing a prominent role at his funeral. This revolution was designed to create bureaucratic efficiency, public interest and participation in the subnational governmental system, and national political coordination. [440], He was preoccupied with his own security, regularly changing where he slept and sometimes grounding all other planes in Libya when he was flying. The next day the RCC decided to promote Captain Gaddafi to colonel and to appoint him commander in chief of the Libyan Armed Forces. The full lifting of the sanctions, contingent on Libya's compliance with the remaining UNSCRs, including acceptance of responsibility for the actions of its officials and payment of appropriate compensation, was passed 12 September 2003, explicitly linked to the release of up to $2.7 billion in Libyan funds to the families of the 1988 attack's 270 victims. In reality, the revolutionary committees were used to survey the population and repress any political opposition to Gaddafi's autocratic rule. The RCC advised diplomatic representatives in Libya that the revolutionary changes had not been directed from outside the country, that existing treaties and agreements would remain in effect, and that foreign lives and property would be protected. Air defenses, three army bases, and two airfields in Tripoli and Benghazi were bombed. [86] In 1970, other OPEC states followed suit, leading to a global increase in the price of crude oil. [261] There were sporadic clashes between Gaddafists and army officers who wanted to overthrow the government. [468] According to Bearman, Gaddafi "evoked the extremes of passion: supreme adoration from his following, bitter contempt from his opponents". Many of the measures suggested in the charter would be implemented the following year, although others remained inactive. [24] The Egyptian government also claimed to have arrested two Egyptian citizens trained by Libyan intelligence to perform sabotage within Egypt. [77], The RCC's early economic policy has been characterized as being state capitalist in orientation. [509] In January 2013, the GNC officially renamed the Jamahiriyah as the "State of Libya". In October 1981 Egypt's President Anwar Sadat was assassinated. Labour Party politician Bill Hartley, the secretary of Libya-Australia friendship society, was long-term supporter of Gaddafi and Saddam Hussein. [100] Compulsory education was expanded from 6 to 9 years, while adult literacy programs and free university education were introduced. [189] Officially, the Jamahiriya was a direct democracy in which the people ruled themselves through the 187 Basic People's Congresses (BPCs), where all adult Libyans participated and voted on national decisions. [38] It is part of the Great Manmade River project, started in 1984. [164] In the aftermath, only five RCC members remained, and power was further concentrated in Gaddafi's hands. [66] In February 1973, he resigned again, once more returning the following month. [512], Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist, "Gaddafi" redirects here. [61] They purged monarchists and members of Idris' Senussi clan from Libya's political world and armed forces; Gaddafi believed this elite were opposed to the will of the Libyan people and had to be expunged. In a speech, Mandela said: "It was pure expediency to call on democratic South Africa to turn its back on Libya and Qaddafi, who had assisted us in obtaining democracy at a time when those who now made that call were the friends of the enemies of democracy in South Africa. [143], The People's Committees led to a high percentage of public involvement in decision making, within the limits permitted by the RCC,[146] but exacerbated tribal divisions and tensions. His home and office at Azizia was a bunker designed by West German engineers, while the rest of his family lived in a large two-storey building. When Libya was under pressure from international disputes, on 19 August 1981, a naval dogfight occurred over the Gulf of Sirte in the Mediterranean Sea. [38], Gaddafi briefly studied history at the University of Libya in Benghazi before dropping out to join the military. [23] At the end of the Second World War in 1945, Libya was occupied by British and French forces. Within a few months, such committees were found all across Libya. your needs must neither be owned by somebody else, nor subject to plunder by any part of society. Celebrations continue across Libya the day after Moammar Gadhafi was killed by rebel forces in his hometown of Sirte, while details of the hours and minutes that led up to … Relations remained strained, particularly due to Morocco's friendly relations with the US and Israel; in August 1986, Hassan abolished the union. [438] He favoured either a military uniform or traditional Libyan dress, tending to eschew Western-style suits. The US shot down two Libyan Su-22 planes which were on an intercept course. [461] In private, Gaddafi often complained that he disliked this personality cult surrounding him, but that he tolerated it because the people of Libya adored him. [85] The RCC followed with the Tripoli Agreement of 20 March 1971, in which they secured income tax, back-payments and better pricing from the oil corporations; these measures brought Libya an estimated $1 billion in additional revenues in its first year. [188] A new, all-green banner was adopted as the country's flag. Thus, it is similar to the term People's Republic. [461] Quotations from The Green Book appeared on a wide variety of places, from street walls to airports and pens, and were put to pop music for public release. Sadat became increasingly wary of Libya's radical direction, and the September 1973 deadline for implementing the Federation passed by with no action taken. The day became a national holiday known as "Vengeance Day". [101] Beida University was founded, while Tripoli University and Benghazi University were expanded. The same concept lay behind proposals to create a new political structure composed of "people's congresses." Libya responded in good faith to legal cases brought against it in U.S. courts for terrorist acts that predate its renunciation of violence. [36], Following an abortive attempt to replace English foreign language education with Russian,[101] in recent years English has been taught in Libyan schools from a primary level, and students have access to English-language media. [457] The sociologist Raymond A. Hinnebusch described the Libyan as "perhaps the most exemplary contemporary case of the politics of charismatic leadership", displaying all of the traits of charismatic authority outlined by the sociologist Max Weber. [62], Gaddafi was a strong opponent of apartheid in South Africa and forged a friendship with Nelson Mandela. Claims for compensation in the Lockerbie bombing, LaBelle disco bombing, and UTA 772 bombing cases are ongoing. The U.S. rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June 2006. [303] His government continued suppressing domestic Islamism, at the same time as Gaddafi called for the wider application of sharia law. [432] Gaddafi described himself as a "simple revolutionary" and "pious Muslim" called upon by God to continue Nasser's work. [59], As of 2004, Libya still provided bounties for heads of critics, including 1 million dollars for Ashur Shamis, a Libyan-British journalist. [306] Relations with the US improved as a result. In 1977, the name was changed to Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. In Darfur, a western province of Sudan, Gaddafi supported the creation of the Arab Gathering (Tajammu al-Arabi), which according to Gérard Prunier was "a militantly racist and pan-Arabist organization which stressed the 'Arab' character of the province. In March 1978, the government issued guidelines for housing redistribution, attempting to ensure that every adult Libyan owned their own home. [230][231] Libyan relations with Lebanon and Shi'ite communities across the world also deteriorated due to the August 1978 disappearance of imam Musa al-Sadr when visiting Libya; the Lebanese accused Gaddafi of having him killed or imprisoned, a charge he denied. We have sent them to the Irish revolutionaries so that the British will pay the price for their past deeds". [203], Gaddafi was staunchly anti-Marxist,[420] and in 1973 declared that "it is the duty of every Muslim to combat" Marxism because it promotes atheism. In the official political philosophy of Gaddafi's state, the "Jamahiriya" system was unique to the country, although it was presented as the materialization of the Third International Theory, proposed by Gaddafi to be applied to the entire Third World. [245] Proposing political unity with Morocco, in August 1984, Gaddafi and Moroccan monarch Hassan II signed the Oujda Treaty, forming the Arab–African Union; such a union was considered surprising due to the strong political differences and longstanding enmity that existed between the two governments. [36], Gaddafi asserted in June 1984 that killings could be carried out even when the dissidents were on pilgrimage in the holy city of Mecca. [421] First noted that, during the early 1970s, various students at the Paris 8 University were hailing Gaddafi as "the only Third World leader with any real stomach for struggle". Ruling by decree, the RCC maintained the monarchy's ban on political parties, in May 1970 banned trade unions, and in 1972 outlawed workers' strikes and suspended newspapers. One of the targets had been Gaddafi's home. [250] In August 1981, the US staged military exercises in the Gulf of Sirte – an area which Libya claimed as a part of its territorial waters. [470] Gaddafi's domestic popularity stemmed from his overthrow of the monarchy, his removal of the Italian settlers and both American and British air bases from Libyan territory, and his redistribution of the country's land on a more equitable basis. [375] Footage of Gaddafi's death was broadcast extensively across media networks internationally. Noting that Gaddafi's favourite hobbies were reading and playing football, he thought him an "amusing officer, always cheerful, hard-working, and conscientious". He reacted to these threats on one hand by maintaining a careful balance of power between the forces in the country, and by brutal repression on the other. [113] Gaddafi propounded pan-Arab ideas, proclaiming the need for a single Arab state stretching across North Africa and the Middle East. On 26 January 1976, Egyptian Vice President Hosni Mubarak indicated in a talk with the US Ambassador Hermann Eilts that the Egyptian government intended to exploit internal problems in Libya to promote actions against Libya, but did not elaborate. [433] Gaddafi was an austere and devout Muslim,[434] although according to Vandewalle, his interpretation of Islam was "deeply personal and idiosyncratic. He officially adopted a symbolic role in governance but remained head of both the military and the Revolutionary Committees responsible for policing and suppressing dissent. [307] British Prime Minister Tony Blair visited Gaddafi in March 2004;[308] the pair developed close personal ties. And this history of US intervention in Libya pre-dates the Gaddafi era - by 130 years, under President Thomas Jefferson, who sent Lt. Stephen Decatur to attack the base of the Barbary Pirates, later referenced in the opening line of the Marine Hymn: "to the shores of Tripoli." This Islamic Legion was mostly composed of immigrants from poorer Sahelian countries,[45] but also, according to a source, thousands of Pakistanis who had been recruited in 1981 with the false promise of civilian jobs once in Libya. [54] Anti-Western riots broke out in Tripoli and Benghazi, while Libyan workers shut down oil terminals in solidarity with Egypt. [46], In April 1966, he was assigned to the United Kingdom for further training; over nine months he underwent an English-language course at Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, an Army Air Corps signal instructors course in Bovington Camp, Dorset, and an infantry signal instructors course at Hythe, Kent. Following the formation of the Libyan Arab Republic, Gaddafi and his associates insisted that their government would not rest on individual leadership, but rather on collegial decision making. The rule of the Turks and Italians and the "reactionary" government just overthrown were characterized as belonging to "dark ages", from which the Libyan people were called to move forward as "free brothers" to a new age of prosperity, equality, and honor. He was killed shortly afterwards. A French journalist, speaking of the Legion's forces in Chad, observed that they were "foreigners, Arabs or Africans, mercenaries in spite of themselves, wretches who had come to Libya hoping for a civilian job, but found themselves signed up more or less by force to go and fight in an unknown desert. After Libyan diplomats shot at 15 anti-Gaddafi protesters from inside the Libyan embassy's first floor and killed a British policewoman, the UK broke off relations with Gaddafi's government as a result of the incident. Regular executions continued annually on 7 April until the late 1980s.[20]. [51], Thailand reported its citizens had helped build storage facilities for nerve gas. [412] He was driven by a sense of "divine mission", believing himself a conduit of God's will, and thought that he must achieve his goals "no matter what the cost". [297] In August 2008, Gaddafi was proclaimed "King of Kings" by a committee of traditional African leaders;[298] they crowned him in February 2009, in a ceremony held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Geographically based committees were formed at the governorate, municipal, and zone (lowest) levels. [399] He sought to distinguish "oriental" Jews who had lived in the Middle East for generations from the European Jews who had migrated to Palestine during the 20th century, calling the latter "vagabonds" and "mercenaries" who should return to Europe. [57] Al-Rukn members were arrested in 1986 for preparing strikes on behalf of Libya, including blowing up US government buildings and bringing down an airplane; the Al-Rukn defendants were convicted in 1987 of "offering to commit bombings and assassinations on US soil for Libyan payment. [247] In turn, Gaddafi played up his commercial relationship with the Soviets, revisiting Moscow in 1981 and 1985,[248] and threatening to join the Warsaw Pact. [315] In August 2008, Gaddafi and Berlusconi signed a historic cooperation treaty in Benghazi;[316][317] under its terms, Italy would pay $5 billion to Libya as compensation for its former military occupation. He outlined his Third International Theory that year in The Green Book. GADDAFI once told the Nigerian and British governments to divide Nigeria into two, so that the Hausa/Fulani (Moslems), Yoruba (Christians) and Biafrans/Igbo, can live as neighbouring countries. While the other Arab nations lifted their oil embargoes on 18 March 1974,[18] the Gaddafi regime refused to do so. The GNC elected Mohammed Magariaf as president of the chamber, and Mustafa A.G. Abushagur as Prime Minister; when Abushagur failed to gain congressional approval, the GNC elected Ali Zeidan to the position. The priority of the Legion was first Chad, and then Sudan. He presented it as an act of goodwill to Western countries; nevertheless the money helped the group to expand its operation.[36]. He was initially ideologically committed to Arab nationalism and Arab socialism but later ruled according to his own Third International Theory. [428], Several biographers and observers characterized Gaddafi as a populist. 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